Famous painters

Landscape and nature have inspired many painters in the latest centuries, becoming one of the main themes. One of the most famous painters, Cozens, painter and theorist of Russian origins, believe that nature is perceived by the artist as a “constellation of blots”, without a definite shape, which is then elaborated by the artist.

Alexander Cozens

Landscape painters are Thomas Gainsborough, Constable and Turner in England, “the Barbizon school of painters” in France, a group of painters gathered around Thèodore Rousseau.

From the second half of the 19th century, art represented social denunciation, showing an interest for the lower classes. Painters like Courbet, in 1855 theorized a form of art as the expression of social issues, Daumier whose realism takes the form of mockery, Millet, who applied realism to farmers and peasants.

Impressionism

Quadro ManetImpressionism developed in France in the second half of the 19th century, when in 1830 Edouard Manet exhibited his work “Le dèjeuner sur l’herbe” in the Salon des refusés. The work gained violent reactions and when eleven years later a group of painters exhibited their works in the atelier of the photographer Nadar and were called for the first time “Impressionists”. They theorized the need to paint open air.

Among the most important painters pertaining to this movement, there are Monet, the most rigourous interpreter of Impressionism; Pissaro and Sisley, inspired by nature which offer impressions for their paintings; Degas and Renoir describe the urban features of Impressionism; Cèzanne, seeking to construct a more solid Impressionism.

Neoimpressionism

Paul Gauguin

The period following the exhibition taking place in 1886, which set forth the division of the Impressionist movement, saw the development of many painting movements: neoimpressionism, pointing out the need to elaborate “a painting science”, whose maximum representative is Seurat; symbolism represented in Redon’s paintings dealing with the dreamlike world.

In the works of Paul Gaugin the need to paint an intimate world shows evidence. Van Gogh describes in his paintings the decadent world he lives in.

Painters of the 20th century 

The 20th century is marked by the experimentation of different styles and the abandonment of traditional techniques in paintings.

 

 

Fauvism and Cubism

Esempio di stile cubista Fauvisme and cubism were originally ironical definitions, underlying the new elements the movements introduce to traditional principles.

 

The most important representatives of fauvism, representing an intimate reality in their works throughout vivid colors, were Matisse, Braque, Vlaminck, Rouault, Dufy e Derain.

 

The feeling dominating their paintings is love for life, as shown by the name of one of Matisse’s works, Joie de vivre.

 

Structural research and object shape analysis are the key features of cubism, developed by Picasso and Braque, whereas color is an ancillary element, in the attempt to find a rationality, through the study of the object.

 

 

Futurism, Abstractism, Surrealism

 

The beginning of the 20th century saw the development of various artistic movements: Italian Futurism of Carrà, Balla, Boccioni, lirical abstractism of Klee e Kandinskij, geometric abstractism of Mondrian, surrealism of Dalì, Mirò, Magritte.

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